TOC, Lean and aviation MRO

In a previous post, “CCPM helps shorten aircrafts MRO”, I explained the benefits of Critical Chain Project Management (CCPM) for reducing the aircraft downtime during their mandatory and scheduled MRO.

If CCPM is great and helps a lot meeting the challenge, it will not squeeze out every potential improvement, thus time reduction, on its own.

As I explained in my post Critical Chain and Lean Engineering, a promising pair, “What CCPM per se does not is discriminate added-value tasks and non added value, the wasteful tasks listed in a project in a Lean thinking way.

Conversely, if wasteful tasks remain in the project network, chance are they will be scheduled and add their load (and duration) to the project.

That’s why in aviation MRO (as well as in other businesses), Critical Chain Project Management will not be used as a stand alone but in conjunction with other approaches, like Lean and Six Sigma.

Lean mainly will help to discriminate value-added from non value-added tasks, especially those on the Critical Chain, making them high priorities to optimize, reduce or eliminate.

We did not differently when we started with our client Embraer and while in their service center, I placed Philip Marris in front of the camcorders to present, in situ, two books related to TOC, Critical Chain and Lean in aviation MRO (aircraft Maintenance, Repair and Overhaul).


Note: Critical Chain Project Management is part of the Theory of Constraints Body of Knowledge, hence the title of this post where “TOC” is referring to CCPM.


Chris Hohmann

View Christian HOHMANN's profile on LinkedIn

CCPM helps shorten aircraft MRO

Facts

Aircrafts have to undergo periodic Maintenance, Repair and Overhaul (MRO). This is mandatory in order to insure the aircraft’s airworthiness and overall safety. During these inspections and repairs, the aircrafts are grounded.

For the owners and operators, the shorter the turnaround time*, the better. An aircraft is a huge investment and the ROI is only when it can be used in service.

*the time the aircraft is grounded, usually counted in weeks for longer in-depth inspections.

Yet aircraft operational availability is not only a question of Return On Investment, think about relief and the lives saved by medivacs or military forces brought closer to their spot during a crisis.

When an aircraft comes in for its scheduled maintenance, according to the type of inspection (ranging from Check A to Check D, according the depth and importance of inspection, the amount of time or usage…  (see Wikipedia)

The process is scheduled like a project as many tasks can’t be done prior to some others, e.g. access some hydraulic pipes before stripping the surrounding frame.

It is therefore common to use Project Management tools and techniques to organize, carry-out and monitor the whole process.

The challenge

Shortening the turnaround time is therefore a challenge for the service centers, not only to please and retain their customers, but also to attract new ones in order to grow their business and improve their profitability.

Of course the challenge is to be met while remaining compliant to the severe regulations and specific constraints, taking no chances with quality nor safety.

Furthermore, “findings” – unexpected defects of potential issues found once the aircraft is under inspection – or sudden customers requirements may add unscheduled workload.

In the traditional project management way, each task is estimated for its duration and a cautious (and generous) margin of time added. The service centers want to keep their committed due date, even if findings or any other random events (parts shortages, supplies problems…) arise.

It is therefore no surprise that major Checks ground an aircraft for weeks.

The new approach

It wasn’t long before some service centers spotted the improvement potential (turnaround time reduction) with Critical Chain Project Management (CCPM). Delta TechOps, Lufthansa Technik, US Navy and Air Force, French SiAé are cases I’m aware of.

Compared to traditional Critical Path Method (CPM), Critical Chain Project Management takes the resources’ limited capacities into account at once and has a completely different approach regarding margin of time. In short, all margins are shortened based on a statistical rationale and a share of it put into a global protective time buffer.

Chris Hohmann

CCPM provides also a simple but very effective visual indicator to monitor both project’s achievement and protective buffer consumption, thus indicating instantly when the project may be late. This robust and early warning allows project managers to focus on a very limited number of issues instead of trying to control every single task.

This allows also the mechanics to work in a quieter atmosphere, an important additional benefit in a trade that considers human stress as a major risk for quality.

CCPM has proven great for consistently meeting due dates and often shortening a whole project duration compared to its original estimations.

Our client testimony

I was fortunate to be involved in Embraer’s Business Jets Service Center’s project to reduce turnaround time in Paris (Le-Bourget) and pleased to produce a series of videos of their testimonies about their achievement.

In this video, Sébastien Albouy, Director of Embraer Executive Jets Services center in Paris Le Bourget executive airport, explains how Critical Chain Project Management helped to drastically shorten the aircraft turnaround time, thus increasing aircraft availability and the center’s capacity.


>Related: TOC, Lean and aviation MRO


View Christian HOHMANN's profile on LinkedIn

Critical Chain and Lean Engineering, a promising pair

Critical Chain Project Management (CCPM) has proven its effectiveness to terminate projects on time and even quite often before estimated finish date.

In development, engineering or Maintenance Repair & Overhaul (MRO), using CCPM can give a significant competitive advantage.

It can outperform slower competitors, earn premium for faster achievement and/or allow multiplying projects within similar timeframe and often with same resources.

CCPM is the perfect companion for Lean Engineering, giving the means to win the race-to-market and multiplying new product launches.

True Lean Engineering is something long to develop and “install”, it’s about learning and developing a reusable knowledge base as well as turning engineers into Lean thinkers.

Terminating projects earlier and multiplying them offers the learning opportunities to test and gather knowledge.

CCPM is therefore a good Lean Engineering “forerunner” giving a competitive advantage faster than the sole Lean Engineering initiative.

What CCPM per se does not is discriminate added-value tasks and non added value, the wasteful tasks listed in a project in a Lean thinking way.

Of course, when CCPM takes care about the capacity constrained resources, it invites to check the content of the tasks and scrutinize the proper use of those precious resources, thus calling for Lean-minded scrutiny.

CCPM acts then as a focusing tool for Lean-minded analysis and improvement.

These two, Critical Chain Project Management and Lean Engineering, seem to make a fine, promising pair.
Something to consider.


Bandeau_CH40_smlView Christian HOHMANN's profile on LinkedIn

Why secret weapons can’t remain secret 

A secret weapon, in its metaphorical or literal meaning, is a means that trumps the actual known ones. It brings a decisive advantage to its user/owner, is more effective and… unknown.

A secret weapon will create a surprise and grant its user a favorable opportunity to exploit,  and if exploited properly can lead to victory.

Once the competition – in warfare or business – aware of the existence of a secret weapon, it will relentlessly try to gather information about it, destroy it or get one too in order to restore balance.

A good reason for the owner to keep on trying keeping it secret and competition to catch up. What eventually will happen.

On the other hand, at some moment it will be politically, strategically or “marketingly” smart to advertise on the competitive advantage and reveal the secret.

For those reasons a secret weapon can’t remain secret.

This is the case with Critical Chain Project Management (CCPM), a “new” approach still somewhat “confidential”.

When we applied it to aircraft MRO and helped our client to halve the aircraft turnaround time, we helped our client to forge a competitive advantage. And when we wanted to advertise about the achievement, the client was reluctant to “give away his secret weapon”.

Well, I thought, how long do you think it will take for word of mouth to spread? How long before your sales team will boast about shorter aircraft grounding? How long before the information will leak via informal channels?

In business it is useless to waste energy trying to keep the secret weapon secret.

On the contrary, focus should be on exploiting the competitive advantage, advertising heavily on it and quickly reap as much profit as possible before competition closes the gap.


Bandeau_CH40_smlView Christian HOHMANN's profile on LinkedIn

Introduction to Critical Chain Project Management

Welcome to my introduction to Critical Chain Project Management (CCPM)!

Critical Chain Project Management is a “new” approach to Project Management, with connections to the Theory of Constraints.

While in the 1980s the production management changed from mainly local unit cost control to a holistic approach that encourages flow (Lean), the project management has not significantly changed* since the introduction of the Critical Path Method  in the 1950s (PERT: USA 1954 Polaris program) and despite its recognized weaknesses regarding reliability and meeting deadlines.

*Agile, Lean IT have brought improvements but the Critical Path Method is still the main model.

In the 1990s, Eli Goldratt, author of the famous business novel the Goal, revisited project management with a Theory of Constraints point of view.

In short, he proposed to shift from a task-focused management to a resources-focused management, taking into account their availability and capacity conflicts. To distinguish the new Critical Path from the previous one, he called it the Critical Chain.

The Critical Chain is the longest path taking into account the resources load levelling.

Critical Chain Project Management (CCPM) reviews also how tasks durations are estimated and proposes to set up a global buffer to protect the project achievement on due date instead of protecting every single task.

Here is a brief overview introducing CCPM


another one:

Here is a second video that gets you a bit deeper into CCPM concept

Bandeau_CH38
View Christian HOHMANN's profile on LinkedIn